Multi response optimization of Inconel 625 wire arc deposition for development of additive manufactured components using Grey relational analysis (GRA)


  • Sarath Dongari Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Warangal, India
  • M. J. Davidson Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Warangal, Warangal, Telangana, India



wire arc additive manufacturing, cold metal transfer process, multi response optimization, grey relational analysis


The paper investigates the multi response optimization of single bead deposition characteristics which affects the additive manufactured structures in later stages of multi layered depositions. Inconel 625 single beads were deposited using the cold metal transfer (CMT) based on Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM). The bead width, bead height, penetration depth as well as microhardness of the fusion region are considered for the decision criteria models. Grey relational analysis (GRA) is used to solve the multi criteria optimization problem. Analysis of variance has been performed to quantify the parameters effects on grey relational grade (GRG). From the GRA, it is observed that at parameter setting of 110 Amps current, 0.4 mm/sec weld speed, and 4 mm standoff distance gives minimum bead width, minimum bead height, maximum penetration depth, and maximum microhardness.


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How to Cite

Dongari, Sarath, and M. J. Davidson. 2021. “Multi Response Optimization of Inconel 625 Wire Arc Deposition for Development of Additive Manufactured Components Using Grey Relational Analysis (GRA)”. Metallurgical and Materials Engineering 27 (2):177-92.



Materials, Industrial, and Manufacturing Engineering