Theoretical study on the efficiency of utilization of nanoclay-CFRP composite materials in the root area of wind turbine blades
In this study, theoretical calculations were performed to determine the most efficient utilization of nanoclays added as reinforcement for CFRP composite materials used for wind turbine blade manufacture. Four different V39 blade models were created, and numerical simulations by FEA were performed. Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymers (GFRP), whole model made of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers/nanoclay (2%) (CFRPN2), Hybrid Glass and Carbon/nanoclay (2%) (HGCN2) and Hybrid Glass and Carbon/nanoclay (5%) (HGCN5). The targeted part was the joining zone between the root and the blade. The most important finding to emerge from this study is that the modest addition of nanoclay (2%) with carbon fiber reinforced polymer leads to a significant stiffer blade, with a minimal deflection, about 70% lower than GFRP. Furthermore, the HGCN2 model is considered to be safer as it has a lower stress concentration than others (52.84 kN/m2). It can be considered that the probability of failure of the entire root area will be decreased if nanoclay-CFRP hybrid blades are used, yielding higher durability and lower overall costs. These findings contribute to decisions related to materials selection, structural, aerodynamic design and layup schedule choice.
M. M. Shokrieh, R. Raﬁee: Composite Structures, 74 (2006) 332–342.
P.-C. Ma, Y Zhang: Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev, 30 (2014) 651–660.
F. C. Campbell, 2010. Structural composite materials. ASM international.
H. C. Lin: Appl Mech Mater, 87 Trans Tech Publ (2011) 49–54.
J. Cuppoletti: Nanocomposites and polymers with analytical methods, InTechOpen, 2011.
N. Saba, P. M. Tahir, M. Jawaid: Polymers, 6 (2014) 2247– 2273.
C. Chen, T. Kam: Procedia Eng, 14 (2011) 1973–1981.
E. S. Kim, J. H. Shim, J. Y. Woo, K. S. Yoo, J. S. Yoon: J Appl Polym Sci, 117 (2010) 809-816.
Y. Xu, S. Van Hoa: Compos Sci Technol, 68 (2008) 854–861.
N. A. Siddiqui, R. S. Woo, J.-K. Kim, C. C. Leung, A. Munir: Composites Part A, 38 (2007) 449–460.
J. J. Karippal, H. Narasimha Murthy, K. Rai, M. Sreejith, M. Krishna: J Compos Mater, 45 (2011) 1893–1899.
S. Kurukuri, S. Eckardt: A review of homogenization techniques for heterogeneous materials, Term paper. Advanced Mechanics of Materials and Structures, Graduate School in Structural Engineering, Germany, 2004.
G. Dai, L. Mishnaevsky Jr: Compos Sci Technol, 91 (2014) 71-81.
G. Dai, L. Mishnaevsky Jr: Compos Sci Technol, 94 (2014) 71-79.
MatWeb. 2015. BYK Cloisite® Na+ Nanoclay, LINK, Accessed 10.12.2018.
Y. Benveniste: Mech Mater, 6 (1987) 147–157.
J. Tangier, D. Somers: NREL airfoil familieses for HAWTs, In: American Wind Energy Association Windpower Conference, Washington, DC, (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) NREL. TP-442-7109, 1995.
K. Cox, A. Echtermeyer: Energy Procedia, 24 (2012) 194–201.
L. Mishnaevsky Jr: Composite materials in wind energy technology. Thermal to Mechanical Energy Conversion: Engines and Requirements, EOLSS Publishers: Oxford, UK, 2011.
A. Mukherjee, B. Varughese: Composites Part B, 32 (2001) 153–164.
E. M. Lenoe: Fibrous composites in structural design, Springer Science & Business Media, 2012.
K. Vallons, G. Adolphs, P. Lucas, S. V. Lomov, I. Verpoest: Mech Ind, 14 (2013) 175–189.
C. Dong, I. J. Davies: Mater Des, 37 (2012) 450–457.
L. R. McKittrick, D. S. Cairns, J. Mandell, D. C. Combs, D. A. Rabern, R. D. Van Luchene: Analysis of a composite blade design for the aoc 15/50 wind turbine using a ﬁnite element model, Sandia National Laboratories Report SAND2001-1441, 2001.
E. Hau, H. von Renouard: Wind turbines: fundamentals, technologies, application, economics. Springer, 2003.
I. E. Commission, IEC 61400-1: Wind turbine generator systems-part 1: Safety requirements. International Standard, 1400–1, 1999.
D. A. Griﬃn: Windpact turbine design scaling studies technical area 1-composite blades for 80-to 120-meter rotor. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Colorado, USA, Tech. Rep. NREL/SR-500-29492, 2001.
K. Grogg: Harvesting the wind: the physics of wind turbines. Physics and Astronomy Comps Papers, 7, 2005.
P. Brøndsted, R. P. Nijssen: Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials, Elsevier, 2013.
A. Rahai, M. Alipoura: Procedia Eng 14 (2011) 3205–3212.
R. M. Christensen: Mechanics of composite materials, Dover Publications, 2012.
E. J. Barbero: Introduction to composite materials design, CRC press, 2017.
M. Adaramola: Wind Turbine Technology: Principles and Design, Apple Academic Press, 2014.
Copyright (c) 2018 layth Sayyid Salman Al-Rukaibawi, Miodrag J Lukic
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their published articles online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website, social networks like ResearchGate or Academia), as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
Except where otherwise noted, the content on this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.