A Numerical Simulation for Cooling of Integrated Toroidal Octagonal Inductor Using Nanofluid in a Microchannel Heat Sink

NANOFLUID IN A MICROCHANNEL HEAT SINK

Authors

  • Yamina Benhadda Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Mohammed Boudiaf USTOMB, Oran, Algeria
  • Mokhtaria Derkaoui National Institute of Telecommunications & ICT, Oran, Algeria
  • Hayet Kharbouch Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Mohammed Boudiaf USTOMB, Oran, Algeria
  • Azzeddine Hamid Center Nour Bachir, El Bayadh, Algeria
  • Pierre Spiteri INP-ENSEEIHT, IRIT, Toulouse, France

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.56801/MME1029

Keywords:

Cooling, integrated toroidal octagonal inductor, Nanofluid, Heat sink, microchannels, CuO/water, Al2O3/water

Abstract

This paper presents a comprehensive numerical simulation study focused on the cooling of integrated toroidal octagonal inductor using nanofluids within a microchannel heat sink. The investigation utilizes COMSOL Multiphysics 6.0 integrated with the Fluid Flow and Conjugate Heat Transfer Module. The primary objective is to explore and understand fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics within the integrated inductor. The study involves testing three distinct fluids, water, CuO-water nanofluid, and Al2O3-water nanofluid, under laminar flow conditions within microchannels. The choice of fluid plays a significant role in heat transfer, interacting with the microchannel geometry to optimize performance. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are meticulously developed; focusing on toroidal inductors equipped with micro pin fins heat sinks. The study commences by detailing the geometry of the micro coil and the integrated heat sink. The simulation encompasses a mathematical model that captures the intricate interplay between the governing Navier-Stokes equations for fluid dynamics and the heat transfer equations within the integrated inductor. As φ increases, temperature, viscosity, and pressure decrease. CuO-water and Al2O3-water nanofluids play a significant role in influencing laminar flow and key thermal parameters in the toroidal inductor. These nanofluids, which consist of base fluids (water) with dispersed nanoparticles (CuO or Al2O3), are employed as cooling agents to enhance heat transfer. The presence of nanoparticles in the fluid alters its thermal properties, leading to changes in the flow dynamics and overall heat dissipation within the toroidal inductor.
The laminar flow characteristics are affected by the nanofluid's viscosity, density, and thermal conductivity. Additionally, the Nusselt number, Reynolds number, and thermal resistance are key thermal parameters that reflect the performance of the cooling system. The nanofluid's influence on these parameters is crucial for understanding and optimizing the thermal management of the integrated toroidal inductor.

The enhancement of heat dissipation in the toroidal inductor is achieved through improved thermal properties of the nanofluid. Higher nanoparticle concentrations result in better heat transfer rates, leading to lower temperatures in the toroidal inductor. This, in turn, improves the overall efficiency and performance of the cooling system. The viscosity of the nanofluid is influenced by the presence of nanoparticles. The pressure within the microchannels is also affected by the nanoparticle concentration. An increase in φ can lead to changes in pressure drop along the microchannels. Understanding these variations is crucial for designing an effective cooling system.

References

D.B. Tuckerman, R.F.W. Pease, High-performance heat sinking for VLSI, IEEE Electron Device, 1981; 126–129.

J. C. Harley, Y. Huang, H. H. Bau, J. N. Zemel, Gas flow in micro-channels J. Fluid Mech., 1995; 284, 257–274.

P.S. Lee, S.V. Garimella, Thermally developing flow and heat transfer in rectangular microchannels of different aspect ratios, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 49, 2006; 17, 3060–3067.

V. Natrajan, K. Christensen, Non-intrusive measurements of convective heat transfer in smooth- and rough-wall microchannels: laminar flow, Experiments in Fluids, 2010; 49(5), 1021-1037.

S.Z. Heris, S.G. Etemad, M.N. Esfahany, Experimental investigation of oxide nanofluids laminar flow convective heat transfer, Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transf. 33, 2006, 529–535.

C.H. Li, G.P. Peterson, Experimental investigation of temperature and volume fraction variations on the effective thermal conductivity of nanoparticle suspensions (nanofluids), J. Appl. Phys. 99, 2006; 084314-1e084314-8.

M. Mirzaei, M. Dehghan, Investigation of flow and heat transfer of nanofluid in microchannel with variable property approach, Heat Mass Transfer 49, 2013, 1803–1811.

M. K.-Aliabadi, Influence of different design parameters and Al2O3–water nanofluid flow on heat transfer and flow characteristics of sinusoidalcorrugated channels, Energy Convers. Manage. 88; 2014, 96–105.

F. Pourfattah, A. A. A. Arani, M. R. Babaie, H. M. Nguyen, A. Asadi, On the thermal characteristics of a manifold microchannel heat sink subjected to nanofluid using two-phase flow simulation, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 143; 2019, 118518.

R. van Erp, R. Soleimanzadeh, L. Nela, G. Kampitsis, E. Matioli, Co-designing electronics with microfluidics for more sustainable cooling, Nature 585 (7824), 2020; 211–216 .

J. Cheng, H. Xu, Z. Tang, P. Zhou, Multi-objective optimization of manifold microchannel heat sink with corrugated bottom impacted by nanofluid jet, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 201, 2023, 123634.

M. Frommberger, C. Schmutz, M. Tewes, J. McCord, W. Hartung, R. Losehand, E. Quandt, Integration of Crossed Anisotropy Magnetic Core Into Toroidal Thin-Film Inductors, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, 2005; 53(6).

Ivana Ferdinand Kovaˇcevic´, Andreas M. Müsing, and Johann Walter Kolar, An Extension of PEEC Method for Magnetic Materials Modeling in Frequency Domain, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, 2011, 47(5).

José M. Lopez-Villegas, Neus Vidal, Jesús A. del Alamo, Toroidal versus Spiral Inductors in Multilayered Tecnologies, Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium, 2016 IEEE.

Hao Feng, Yujin Liu, Junping He, Broadband PEEC Model Study on Ferrite-core Inductive Devices of Switched Mode Power Supply, 2020,IEEE.

Hao Sun , Xinjie Yu , Zhen Li , Songheng Yang, Bei Li , Zhizhen Liu, and Hongzhuang He, Design and Optimization of Multimodule IPPS System With Toroidal Structure, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, 2023; 51(1).

Y.-H. Pan, R. Zhao, Y.-L. Nian, W.-L. Cheng, Numerical study on heat transfer characteristics of a pin–fin staggered manifold microchannel heat sink, Applied Thermal Engineering 219, 2023; 119436.

S. Sun, P. Liebersbach, X. Qian, 3D topology optimization of heat sinks for liquid cooling, Applied Thermal Engineering 178; 2020, 115540.

H. Zhang, S. Li, J. Cheng, Z. Zheng, X. Li, F. Li, Numerical study on the pulsating effect on heat transfer performance of pseudo-plastic fluid flow in a manifold microchannel heat sink, Applied Thermal Engineering 129, 2018; 1092–1105.

S.-N. Li, H.-N. Zhang, X.-B. Li, Q. Li, F.-C. Li, S. Qian, S. W. Joo, Numerical study on the heat transfer performance of non-Newtonian fluid flow in a manifold microchannel heat sink, Applied Thermal Engineering 115, 2017; 1213–1225.

S. P. Jang, S. J. Kima, K. W. Paik, Experimental investigation of thermal characteristics for a microchannel heat sink subject to an impinging jet, using a micro-thermal sensor array, Sensors and Actuators A 105, 2003; 211–224.

J. Zhou, X. Chen, Q. Zhao, M. Lu, D. Hu, Q. Li, Flow thermohydraulic characterization of hierarchical-manifold microchannel heat sink with uniform flow distribution, Applied Thermal Engineering 198, 2021; 117510.

B. Chen, C. Zhang, Y. Xu, Z. Chen, Hydrodynamic and thermal performance of in-line strip-fin manifold microchannel heat sink, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 209, 2023; 124131.

Y. Luo, W. Li, J. Zhang, W.J. Minkowycz, Analysis of thermal performance and pressure loss of subcooled flow boiling in manifold microchannel heat sink, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 162, 2020; 120362.

Y.F. Li, G.D. Xia ⇑, D.D. Ma, Y.T. Jia, J. Wang, Characteristics of laminar flow and heat transfer in microchannel heat sink with triangular cavities and rectangular ribs, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 98, 2016; 17–28.

W. Qu, I. Mudawar, Analysis of three-dimensional heat transfer in micro-channel heat sinks, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 45, 2002; 3973–3985.

I. A. Ghani, N. Kamaruzaman, N. A. C. Sidik, Heat transfer augmentation in a microchannel heat sink with sinusoidal cavities and rectangular ribs, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 108, 2017; 1969–1981.

D. Kong, E. Jung, Y. Kim, V. V. Manepalli, K. J. Rah, H. S. Kim, Y. Hong, H. G. Choi, D. Agonafer, H. Lee, An additively manufactured manifold-microchannel heat sink for high-heat flux cooling, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 248, 2023; 108228.

J. Zhang, J. An, G. Xin, X. Wang, Q. Zhou, J. Huang, Z. Wu, Numerical investigation of novel manifold microchannel heat sinks with countercurrent regions, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 214, 2023; 124389.

Z. Wang, M. Li, F. Ren, B. Ma, H. Yang, Y. Zhu, Sobol sensitivity analysis and multi-objective optimization of manifold microchannel heat sink considering entropy generation minimization, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 208, 2023; 124046.

M. Shanmugam, L. S. Maganti, Multi-objective optimization of parallel microchannel heat sink with inlet/outlet U, I, Z type manifold configuration by RSM and NSGA-II, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 201P1, 2023, 123641.

N. Gilmore, V. Timchenko, C. Menictas, Manifold microchannel heat sink topology optimization, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 170, 2021, 121025.

M. Yang, M.-T. Li, Y.-C. Hua, W. Wang, B.-Y. Cao, Experimental study on single-phase hybrid microchannel cooling using HFE-7100 for liquid-cooled chips, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 160 (2020) 120230.

I. L. Collins, J. A. Weibel, L. Pan, S. V. Garimella, A permeable-membrane microchannel heat sink made by additive manufacturing, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 131, 2019; 1174–1183.

K. Tang, Y. Huang, G. Lin, Y. Guo, J. Huang, H. Lin, H. Zhang, Q. Yang, J. Miao, Thermal-hydraulic performance of ammonia in manifold microchannel heat sink, Applied Thermal Engineering 232 (2023) 121000.

C. Chen, F. Hou, R. Ma, M. Su, J. Li, L. Cao, Design, integration and performance analysis of a lid-integral microchannel cooling module for high-power chip, Applied Thermal Engineering 198, 2021; 117457.

M. Yang, B.-Y. Cao, Numerical study on flow and heat transfer of a hybrid microchannel cooling scheme using manifold arrangement and secondary channels, Applied Thermal Engineering 159, 2019; 113896.

Y. Yue, S. K. Mohammadian, Y. Zhang, Analysis of performances of a manifold microchannel heat sink with nanofluids, International Journal of Thermal Sciences 89, 2015; 305-313.

W. Tang, J. Li, J. Lu, K. Sheng, Z. Wu, X. Li, Thermal management of GaN HEMT devices using subcooled flow boiling in an embedded manifold microchannel heat sink, Applied Thermal Engineering 225, 2023; 120174.

K. Tang, G. Lin, Y. Guo, J. Huang, H. Zhang, J. Miao, Simulation and optimization of thermal performance in diverging/converging manifold microchannel heat sink, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 200, 2023; 123495.

S. Sarangi, K. K. Bodla, S. V. Garimella, J. Y. Murthy, Manifold microchannel heat sink design using optimization under uncertainty, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 69, 2014; 92–105.

H. S. Park, J. Punch, Friction factor and heat transfer in multiple microchannels with uniform flow distribution, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 51, 2008; 4535–4543.

Y. Pan, R. Zhao, Y. Nian, W. Cheng, Study on the flow and heat transfer characteristics of pin-fin manifold microchannel heat sink, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 183, 2022; 122052.

Y. Lin, Y. Luo, W. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Tao, T. I-P. Shih, Single-phase and Two-phase Flow and Heat Transfer in Microchannel Heat Sink with Various Manifold Arrangements, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 171, 2021; 121118.

F. Pourfattah, A. A. A. Arani, M. R. Babaie, Hoang M. Nguyen, A. Asadi, On the thermal characteristics of a manifold microchannel heat sink subjected to nanofluid using two-phase flow simulation, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 143, 2019; 118518.

Y. Luo, J. Li, K. Zhou, J. Zhang, W. Li, A numerical study of subcooled flow boiling in a manifold microchannel heat sink with varying inlet-to-outlet width ratio, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 139, 2019; 554–563.

A. Bakhirathan, R. Giridhar, G. Kiran K. Lachireddi, Heat Transfer Enhancement for On-Chip Cooling Application Using Novel Composite Heat Sink—Comparative Numerical Study, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPONENTS, PACKAGING AND MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY, 2021; 11(8).

H. Faraji, M. Faraji , M. El Alami, Numerical Investigation of the Latent Heat Storage During the Melting Driven Natural Convection Around Heat Source Embedded in a Rectangular Cavity: Application to the Passive Cooling, IEEE, 2018.

A. T. Okasha, F. G. Al-Amri, T. Maatallah, N. A. M. Hassanain, A. K. Alghamdi, R. Zachariah, Numerical Study of Single-Layer and Stacked Minichannel-Based Heat Sinks Using Different Truncating Ratios for Cooling High Concentration Photovoltaic Systems, Sustainability 2022, 14, 5352.

D. M.-Maradiaga, A. Damonte, A. Manzo, J. H.K. Haertel, K. Engelbrecht, Design and testing of topology optimized heat sinks for a tablet, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 142, 2019; 118429.

H. Kharbouch,Y. Guettaf, A. Hamid, V. Bley, Benhadda, Y. Design and Implementation of Inductors with Variable Conductor Width Integrated in a Boost Micro Converter, Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Materials, 2021, 22(4), 519–530.

M. Derkaoui, Y. Benhadda, A. Hamid, A. Temmar, Design and Modeling of Octagonal Planar Inductor and Transformer in Monolithic Technology for RF Systems, Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology, 2021; 16(3), 1481–1493.

Y. Benhadda, M. Derkaoui, K. Mendaz, H, Kharbouch, P. Spiteri, Design for Integrated Planar Spiral Inductor for MEMS. Periodica Polytechnica Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2023.

M. Derkaoui, Y. Benhadda, G. Chaabene, P. Spiteri, On-Chip GaN Planar Transformer Design for Highly Integrated RF Systems, Journal of Circuits, Systems, and Computers, 2023; 32.

Downloads

Published

2023-12-11

How to Cite

Benhadda, Yamina, Mokhtaria Derkaoui, Hayet Kharbouch, Azzeddine Hamid, and Pierre Spiteri. 2023. “A Numerical Simulation for Cooling of Integrated Toroidal Octagonal Inductor Using Nanofluid in a Microchannel Heat Sink: NANOFLUID IN A MICROCHANNEL HEAT SINK”. Metallurgical and Materials Engineering 30 (1):17-44. https://doi.org/10.56801/MME1029.

Issue

Section

Materials, Industrial, and Manufacturing Engineering