Numerical and experimental investigations of mechanical properties of AW 6005-T6 Aluminium alloy butt weld joint using GMAW process
Keywords:AW 6005-T6, HAZ, Simufact Welding, thermal cycle, Gleeble peak temperatures, Vickers hardness
This study aimed to investigate the effect of the welding heat input on the heat affected zone (HAZ) of AW 6005-T6 aluminium alloy for a butt-welded joint using gas metal arc welding. The determination of the thermal cycles, metallography, and the resulting mechanical properties in the zone makes its possible. The study involved using a welding experiment, numerical simulation, physical simulation, and mechanical tests. The welding was carried out using the pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW) transfer and type J thermocouples were used to develop the thermal cycles in the HAZ. Simufact® Welding was utilized for the numerical simulation. Optical microscope was used to evaluate the microstructures and Vickers microhardness test was done along the weld cross-section. The HAZ was located on the weld cross-section with a mean hardness of 63.7 HV0.1, which is considerably lower when compared with the base metal (BM) which has a hardness of 100 HV0.1. This indicates thermal softening occurred due to the heat input to the material. There is a match in the hardness values of the Gleeble samples and the locations on the weld cross section suggested by the model showing validity of the simulation. It is important to note the fact that there is an influence of heat input into aluminum AW 6005-T6 weld joints and its mechanical properties in the design of welding process parameters for automotive parts. The welding parameters can be optimized to decrease the heat input into the weld, as this can directly affects the mechanical properties in the HAZ.
J. Hirsch, « Recent development in aluminium for automotive applications », Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, vol. 24, no 7, p. 1995‑2002, juill. 2014.
Verma, R.P. and M.K. Lila, A short review on aluminium alloys and welding in structural applications. Materials Today: Proceedings, 2021. 46: p. 10687-10691.
Kumagai, M., Recent technological developments in welding of aluminium and its alloys. Welding international, 2003. 17(3): p. 173-181.
Hirsch, J. Automotive trends in aluminium-The European perspective. in Materials Forum. 2004.
Yang, C., et al., A comparative research on bobbin tool and conventional friction stir welding of Al-Mg-Si alloy plates. Materials Characterization, 2018. 145: p. 20-28.
Sun, T., et al., Challenges and opportunities in laser welding of 6xxx high strength aluminium extrusions in automotive battery tray construction. Procedia CIRP, 2020. 94: p. 565-570.
Famelton, J., et al., Xenon plasma focussed ion beam preparation of an Al-6XXX alloy sample for atom probe tomography including analysis of an α-Al (Fe, Mn) Si dispersoid. Materials Characterization, 2021. 178: p. 111194.
Dubey, R., et al., Energy absorption and dynamic behaviour of 6xxx series aluminium alloys: A review. International Journal of Impact Engineering, 2022: p. 104397.
Siwowski, T.W., Structural behaviour of aluminium bridge deck panels. Engineering structures, 2009. 31(7): p. 1349-1353.
Baharnezhad, S. and A. Golhin, IN-SITU MEASUREMENT AND FINITE ELEMENT SIMULATION OF THERMO-MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF AA 6063 ALUMINUM ALLOY FOR MIG WELDMENT. Materials Physics & Mechanics, 2017. 32(2).
Goldak, J.A. and M. Akhlaghi, Computational welding mechanics. 2005: Springer Science & Business Media.
Wahab, M.A., M. Painter, and M. Davies, The prediction of the temperature distribution and weld pool geometry in the gas metal arc welding process. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 1998. 77(1-3): p. 233-239.
Samardžić, I., et al., Application of weld thermal cycle simulator in manufacturing engineering. Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering, 2013. 12(1-2).
Wu, X., et al., Determination of local true stress-strain response of X80 and Q235 girth-welded joints based on digital image correlation and numerical simulation. International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, 2020. 188: p. 104232.
Ndiwe, B., et al. Effect of consumable filler wire composition to mismatches of high-Mn steels welded joints. in The 27th International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference. 2017. OnePetro.
Nazemi, N., F. Ghrib, and J. Sokolowski. The HAZ in Aluminum Welding Revisited. in 3rd spciality conference on Engineering Mechanics and Materials. 2013.
Frappier, R., et al., Quantitative infrared analysis of welding processes: temperature measurement during RSW and CMT-MIG welding. Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, 2014. 19(1): p. 38-43.
Bonazzi, E., et al., Numerical simulation and experimental validation of MIG welding of T-joints of thin aluminum plates for top class vehicles. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 2017. 48: p. 379-388.
Fernandes, M.F., et al., Investigation of residual stress, stress relaxation and work hardening effects induced by shot peening on the fatigue life of AA 6005-T6 aluminum alloy. Materials Research Express, 2020. 6(12): p. 1265i2.
Mvola, B., et al., DISSIMILAR HIGH-STRENGTH STEELS: FUSION WELDED JOINTS, MISMATCHES, AND CHALLENGES. Reviews on Advanced Materials Science, 2016. 44(2).
Kah, P., et al., Welding of a 7025 Al-alloy by a pulsed MIG welding process. Mechanics, 2013. 19(1): p. 96-103.
Spence, C., Powder Metallurgy Processing of an Al-0.7 Mg-0.4 Si-(Sn) Alloy. 2022.
Missori, S. and A. Sili, Mechanical behaviour of 6082-T6 aluminium alloy welds. Metallurgical Science and Tecnology, 2000. 18(1).
Stover, C.M., Method of Butt Welding Small Thermocouples 0.001 to 0.010 Inch in Diameter. Review of Scientific Instruments, 1960. 31(6): p. 605-608.
« ISO 6892-1:2016(en), Metallic materials — Tensile testing — Part 1: Method of test at room temperature ». https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:6892:-1:ed-2:v1:en (consulté le 23 juillet 2020).
P. NF 94-050, « 94–050. Soils: investigation and testing–determination of moisture content–oven drying method », Association Française de Normalisation, 1995.
ISO standards, “ISO 18273:2015- Welding consumables, wire electrodes, wires and rods for welding of aluminum and aluminum alloys-- classification,” iso.org, 2015.
Tsao, C.-S., et al., Precipitation kinetics and transformation of metastable phases in Al–Mg–Si alloys. Acta Materialia, 2006. 54(17): p. 4621-4631.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Benoit Ndiwe, Paul Kah, Francois Miterand Njock Bayock, Daniel Agili Uchechukwu, Harrison Onyeji
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their published articles online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website, social networks like ResearchGate or Academia), as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
Except where otherwise noted, the content on this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.