Estimation of phosphorus distribution ratio at the end of blowing in BOF


  • Z. M. Slović Key to Metals d.o.o., Belgrade, Serbia
  • D. Bradarić KOTEH inženjering d.o.o., Smederevo, Serbia
  • Karlo Raić Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy,University of Belgrade
  • J. Z. Slović Holycode D.O.O. Beograd, Serbia



BOF, phosphorus distribution ratio, dephosphorization, activity coefficient of P2O5


In integrated steel plants, the removal of phosphorous normally takes place during the primary basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steelmaking process. Phosphorous is usually introduced to the integrated steelmaking process through blast furnace additions, such as iron ore, coke, sinter, and fluxes. Among the others parameters such as optimizing the charging system, oxygen supply system, oxygen lance parameters of the converter, the flux quality in combination with temperature process control can improve the BOF efficiency of Dephosphorization. Phosphorus partition ratio (LP) is usually used to evaluate the thermodynamic efficiency of the dephosphorization of slags with different compositions in steelmaking processes. However, this parameter is only useful in equilibrium conditions, and it is not accurate when used to evaluate slag efficiency in industrial processes. Because of this, the aim of this work was to study the phosphorus partition ratio estimated from the experimental results in real plant conditions of two different BOF steel plants and compare them with well-known published models. In the present study, data from two steel plants (further Plant A and Plant B) were evaluated applying Healy’s, Suito and Inoui’s, Zhang’s as well as Assis’s equations. The calculated values were compared against measured values.


A. Adak, A. Das, S.Chatterjee, A. Senguttuvan, A. Mukherjee, Optimization of Dephosphorisation Practice in BOF Shops Using Advanced Analytics, Conference: AISTech, At: Pennsylvania, USA, 2018, Link; Accessed 9. 2021.

F. Costa Broseghini, H. Cristo Clem de Oliveria, S. GambarineSoares, F. FardinGrillo: REM, Int Eng J, 71 (2018) 217-223.


K. Chattopadhyay, S. Kumar: Application of Thermodynamic Analysis for Developing Strategies to Improve BOF Steelmaking Process Capability, AISTech Conference Proceedings, Iron and Steel Technology AIST, Indiana Convention Center in Indianapolis, Ind., USA, 2014, PR-364-079 - 2013.

B. Kumar Rout: Modelling of Dephosphorization in Oxygen Steelmaking, SWINBURNE UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia March 2018, PhD Thesis, Link; Accessed 9. 2021.

A. Purohit: Dephosphorization of steel produced from sponge iron in the induction furnace, National Institute of Technology Rourkela-769008 May 2014, Roll No.-212MM2458, MSc Thesis, Link; Accessed 9. 2021.

S. Kumar Sarna,Ispat Guru, 2016, Dephosphorization of steels, Link; Accessed 9. 2021.

H. Suito, R. Inoue, M. Takada: Tetsu-to-Hagané 67 (16) (1981) 2645-2654.


H. Suito, Hideaki, R. Inoue:Trans Iron Steel InstJpn, 24 (1) (1984) 47-53.


H. Suito, R. Inoue: ISIJ International, 35(3) (1995) 258-265.


E. T. Turkdogan: ISIJ International, 40(10) (2000) 964-970.


R. Inoue, H. Suito: ISIJ International, 46(2) (2006) 174-179.


K. Ide, R.J. Fruehan: Iron &steelmaker, 27(12) (2000) 65-70.


G.W. Healy: JISI, 208 (1970) 664-668.

W. Wu, Y.Qixing, G. A. O. Qi, J. Zeng: J Mater Res Technol, 9 (2020) 2754-2761.


F. He, Z.Lingying: J Process Control, 66 (2018) 51-58.


B.K. Rout, G. Brooks, M.A.Rhamdhani, Z. Li, F.N.H.Schrama, J. Sun:Metall Mater Trans. B, 49 (2018) 537-557.


K.X. Zhou, W.H.Lin, J.K.Sun, J.S.Zhang, D.Z. Zhang, X.M. Feng, Q.Liu:Journal of Iron and Steel Research International (2021) 1-10.

S. Khadhraoui, H.J.Odenthal, S. Das, M.Schlautmann, K. Hack, B. Glaser, R. Woolf: La metallurgiaitaliana 11-12 (2018) 5-16.

P.B. Drain, B.J. Monaghan, G. Zhang, R.J. Longbottom, M.W. Chapman, S.J. Chew: A review of phosphorus partition relations for use in basic oxygen steelmaking. Ironmaking & Steelmaking, 44 (2017) 721-731.


H. Suito, R. Inoue: ISIJ international, 35 (1995): 258-265.


A.N. Assis, M.A. Tayeb, S. Seetharaman, R. Fruehan: Metall Mater Trans. B,46(2015)2255-2263.


A.N.Assis: The Phosphorus Reaction in Oxygen Steelmaking: Thermodynamic Equilibrium and Metal Droplet Behavior, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, 2014, PhD Thesis, Paper 464./ Link; Accessed 9. 2021.

M. Saqlain, M. Owais, M. Järvinen, V.V. Visuri, T. Fabritius, Desphosphorization in ironmaking and oxygen steelmaking, 2018; Link; Accessed 9. 2021.

T. Mori: Trans JpnInst Met, 25(11)(1984) 761-771.


Z. Slović: Control of the process of removal of sulfur and phosphorus from metals in steel production, MSc thesis, TMF, University of Belgrade, Serbia, 2004, /in Serbian/;

Z.Slović:Thermodynamic approach to desulfurization in out-of-furnace processing of oxygen-converter steel, PhD thesis,TMF, UniversityofBelgrade, Serbia, 2004, /inSerbian/; UDK: 669.01/.09 /18.12.2013.




How to Cite

Slović, Z. M., D. Bradarić, Karlo Raić, and J. Z. Slović. 2021. “Estimation of Phosphorus Distribution Ratio at the End of Blowing in BOF”. Metallurgical and Materials Engineering 27 (4):425-36.



Steelmaking and processing - devoted to Prof. Ljubomir Nedeljković