Heavy metal sorption using thiolated oils of Elaeis guineensis and Glycine max

  • Onyeka Stanislaus Okwundu Science and Engineering Unit, Nigerian Young Researchers Academy, Awka Road, 430231 Onitsha North Local Government Area, Anambra State, Nigeria https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7655-2392
  • Chibuzor Kelvin Enyekwe Science and Engineering Unit, Nigerian Young Researchers Academy, Awka Road, 430231 Onitsha North Local Government Area, Anambra State, Nigeria
  • Chinedu James Chiama Science and Engineering Unit, Nigerian Young Researchers Academy, Awka Road, 430231 Onitsha North Local Government Area, Anambra State, Nigeria
  • Chimezie John Chiama Science and Engineering Unit, Nigerian Young Researchers Academy, Awka Road, 430231 Onitsha North Local Government Area, Anambra State, Nigeria
  • Obiora Ebuka Muojama Science and Engineering Unit, Nigerian Young Researchers Academy, Awka Road, 430231 Onitsha North Local Government Area, Anambra State, Nigeria
  • Chukwujekwu Augustine Okaro Science and Engineering Unit, Nigerian Young Researchers Academy, Awka Road, 430231 Onitsha North Local Government Area, Anambra State, Nigeria
  • Cyril Oluchukwu Ugwuoke Science and Engineering Unit, Nigerian Young Researchers Academy, Awka Road, 430231 Onitsha North Local Government Area, Anambra State, Nigeria
  • Ekene Kingsley Uzoma Science and Engineering Unit, Nigerian Young Researchers Academy, Awka Road, 430231 Onitsha North Local Government Area, Anambra State, Nigeria
Keywords: sulphur-functionalized lipids; palm oil; palm kernel oil; soybean oil; liquid-liquid sorption; fatty acid unsaturation; heptanethiol; extraction; Ag remediation; water treatment.

Abstract

Sulphur-modification of matter confers improved heavy metal affinity and could be exploited in the treatment of heavy metal contaminated water. This paper is aimed at comparing the liquid-liquid Ag+ sorption capacities of normal and thiolated: palm oil (PO), palm kernel oil (PKO) and soybean oil (SBO), respectively. The vegetable oils were modified with 1-heptanethiol, and the thioether-functionalized (TF) oils were utilized for the removal of Ag+ present as a contaminant in water, while the unmodified oils acted as controls. The liquid-liquid equilibrium contact time was determined to be 6 hours. The result achieved after equilibration revealed the effectiveness of TF oils in the removal of Ag+ from a 600 ppm AgNO3 simulated water. While TF-SBO reduced the cation concentration to a level less than the detection limit, TF-PKO only showed appreciable sorption capacity (below 30%) relative to the normal oils. The order of Ag+ sorption capacity (TF-SBO > TF-PO > TF-PKO) was ascribed to various levels of unsaturation of fatty acid chains encountered in the lipids. A higher number of sorption-active TF sites is achievable with a greater degree of fatty acid unsaturation. On that note, highly unsaturated vegetable oils (such as that of Glycine max) were recommended.

Author Biography

Onyeka Stanislaus Okwundu, Science and Engineering Unit, Nigerian Young Researchers Academy, Awka Road, 430231 Onitsha North Local Government Area, Anambra State, Nigeria

Onyeka was the First Class Best Graduating Student of Chemical Engineering from the University of Benin, Nigeria, in 2014. He obtained his MSc degree with Distinction in Chemical and Petrochemical Engineering, from E-JUST, Egypt (2019). His research interests include: biofuels, energy materials, extractive processes, microfluidics, food processing, waste valorisation/remediation.

 

References

C.A. Ottoni, M.C. Lima Neto, P. Léo, B.D. Ortolan, E. Barbieri, A.O. De Souza: Chemosphere, 239 (2020) 124698.

Crossref

O.S. Okwundu, E.U. Aniekwe, C.E. Nwanno: Metall Mater Eng, 24 (2018) 145-171.

Crossref

Y. Zhang, A. Ye, Y. Yao, C. Yao: Sensors, 19 (2019) 247.

Crossref

H. Kinemuchi, B. Ochiai: Adv Mater Sci Eng, 2018 (2018) 54-60.

Crossref

O.S. Okwundu, C.O. Ugwuoke, A.C. Okaro: Metall Mater Eng, 25 (2019) 105-138.

Crossref

K.C. Khulbe, T. Matsuura: Appl Water Sci, 8 (2018) 19.

Crossref

T. Mishra, V.C. Pandey, A. Praveen, N.B. Singh, N. Singh, D.P. Singh: Environ Geochem Health (2020) 1-11.

Crossref

A.K.S. Deb, N. Dhume, K. Dasgupta, S.M. Ali, K.T. Shenoy, S. Mohan: Sep Sci Technol (2018) 1-15.

W. Fu, H. Chen, S. Yang, W. Huang, Z. Huang: Chemosphere, 232 (2019) 9-17.

Crossref

A.T. Yordanov, B.R. Whittlesey, D.M. Roundhill: Inorg Chem, 37 (1998) 3526-3531.

Crossref

K. Chayama, Y. Morita, S. Iwatsuki: J Chromatogr A, 1217 (2010) 6785-6790.

Crossref

T.F. Baumann, J.G. Reynolds, G.A. Fox: React Funct Polym, 44 (2000) 111-120.

Crossref

G. Dede, S. Ozdemir: J Environ Manage, 166 (2016) 103-108.

Crossref

D. Saha, S. Barakat, S.E. Van Bramer, K.A. Nelson, D.K. Hensley, J. Chen: ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 8 (2016) 34132-34142.

Crossref

R.E. Murray, G.B. Bantchev, K.M. Doll, R.O. Dunn, K.L. Ascherl, Heavy Metal Remediation via Sulfur-Modified Bio-Oils, WO 2014/089428 A1, 2014.

R.E. Murray, G.B. Bantchev, R.O. Dunn, K.L. Ascherl, K.M. Doll: ACS Sustain Chem Eng, 1 (2013) 562-565.

Crossref

W. Yantasee, C.L. Warner, T. Sangvanich, R.S. Addleman, T.G. Carter, R.J. Wiacek, G.E. Fryxell, C. Timchalk, M.G. Warner: Environ Sci Technol, 41 (2007) 5114-5119.

Crossref

L. Mercier, T.J. Pinnavaia: Environ Sci Technol, 32 (1998) 2749-2754.

Crossref

B.G. Bantchev, A.J. Kenar, G. Biresaw, G.M. Han, J. Agric: Food Chem, 57 (2009) 1282-1290.

Crossref

R.O. Dunn, G.B. Bantchev, R.E. Murray, K.M. Doll, K.L. Ascherl, J.C. Lansing: J Am Oil Chem Soc, 95 (2018) 1189-1200.

Crossref

L. Manjakkal, D. Szwagierczak, R. Dahiya: Prog Mater Sci, 109 (2020) 100635.

Crossref

T. Jintakosol, W. Nitayaphat: Mater Res, 19 (2016) 1114-1121.

Crossref

P.L. Drake, K.J. Hazelwood: Ann Occup Hyg, 49 (2005) 575-585.

V. Edwards-Jones: Lett Appl Microbiol, 49 (2009) 147-152.

Crossref

L. Fewtrell, Silver : Water Disinfection and Toxicity, 2014.

Link

P. Staroń, K. Pszczółka, J. Chwastowski, M. Banach: Environ Sci Pollut Res (2020) 1-13.

X. Gao, V.D. Topping, Z. Keltner, R.L. Sprando, J.J. Yourick: J Nanobiotechnology, 15 (2017) 1-18.

Crossref

Office of Water United States Environmental Protection Agency, EPA (2020).

O.S. Okwundu, Biodiesel Production from Animal Fat Using Calcium-Based Catalysts, Egypt-Japan University of Science and Technology, Egypt, 2019.

Food Safety and Standards Authority of India, Oils and Fats, New Delhi, India, 2015.

J.A. Hefne, W.K. Mekhemer, N.M. Alandis, O.A. Aldayel, T. Alajyan: J King Saud Univ Sci, 22 (2010) 155-176.

Crossref

N. Aoki, R. Umei, A. Yoshida, K. Mae: Chem Eng J, 167 (2011) 643-650.

Crossref

O.S. Okwundu, M. Fuseini, Characterization of Mixing Performance of Micromixers : Effect of Confluence Shape and Normal Bends after Confluence, 2018.

Published
2020-09-03