Struggle of women for higher education

  • Fathi Habashi Laval University, Québec


Higher education was denied for women in most countries mainly by the clergy till the beginning of the 20th century. Universities in most European countries were closed to female students. Few research centers accepted women researchers and similarly few university professors accepted women students. In spite of this many women chemists and physicists distinguished themselves in great discoveries and women got Nobel Prizes in physics and chemistry. Now, girl graduates from most colleges are twice the number of boys graduates.

Author Biography

Fathi Habashi, Laval University, Québec


- W. Ley, Otto Hahn. A Scientific Autobiography, Scribner, New York 1966

- M. F. Rayner-Canham and G.W. Rayner-Canham, A Devotion to Their Science, Chemical Heritage Foundation [Philadelphia] and McGill Queens’s University Press [Montreal] 1997

- M. F. Rayner-Canham and G.W. Rayner-Canham, Women in Chemistry, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC 1998

- F. Habashi, Ida Noddack (1896-1978), Métallurgie Extractive Québec 2005. Distributed by Laval University Bookstore,