Network of Water Problems in the Press of Mexico City During the COVID-19 Era


  • Cruz García Lirios UAEMEX
  • Juan Mansilla Sepúlveda Universidad de Temuco, Chile
  • José Marcos Bustos Aguayo Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
  • Francisco Rubén Sandoval Vázquez Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, México
  • Cruz García-Lirios Universidad Autónoma de la Ciudad de México



Famine, COVID-19, Scarcity, Insalubrity, Agenda


The pandemic generated containment and mitigation policies, as well as distancing and confinement strategies that limited the supply of water resources to social sectors. Residential areas- The offer is maintained, but with an increase in rates. Marginalized areas were subsidized and exempted from paying for an increasingly intermittent supply. The anti-COVID-19 policies guided water policies in two ways: The first consisted of disseminating anti-COVID-19 policies in water management agencies. Another second consisted of the autonomy of the institutions and their disassociation or agreement with the anti-COVID-19 policies. In this way, the literature from 2020 to 2023 around anti-COVID-19 policies in their water dimensions, registers problems of scarcity, famine and unsanitary conditions. Scarcity had already been observed in marginalized sectors, famine in residential neighborhoods, but unsanitary conditions were appreciated in migrant communities. In fact, the type of exposure to occupational hazards determined the health status of the migrants. The water problems were recorded in the circulation press to highlight the asymmetries of the anti-COVID-19 policies in the public and private sectors, as well as in the political and social actors. The objective of the study was to reveal the network structure of relationships between nodes and edges related to press releases on water issues. A documentary, cross-sectional and retrospective study was carried out with national circulation newspapers: El País, El Reforma, La Jornada and El Universal, considering the water problems of scarcity, unsanitary conditions and famine. The results show a structure of nodes where the water problems were initiated by La Jornada and ended by El Reforma. Both findings are relevant considering the ideology of the newspaper. La Jornada, a newspaper identified with the political ideology of the left, began the diffusion of water problems in a city administered by a government of the same ideology. El Reforma, a newspaper designated by the executive as a spokesperson for the opposition ideology, culminates the network of notes on water problems. In other words, regardless of the type of political ideology attributed to newspapers, the problems of scarcity, unsanitary conditions and famine are spread. In relation to the state of the art where it is shown that ideology does not influence the establishment of the agenda, the present work corroborates and recommends expanding the study to other entities administered by the opposition such as the cities of Guadalajara and Monterrey.


World Health Organization (2022). SARS CoV-2 and COVID-19 coronavirus statistics. Geneva: WHO.

Pan American Health Organization (2022). SARS CoV-2 and COVID-19 coronavirus statistics for the world. New York: PAHO.

Organization for Economic Development and Cooperation (2022). Statistics of coronavirus SARS CoV-2 and COVID-19 disease for the country. Gynevra: OECD.

National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics (2020). XIII National Population and Housing Census. Mexico: INEGI.

National Water Commission (2021). Water banks in Mexico. Mexico: Conagua.

Berroeta, H., Ramoneda, A., Rodríguez, V., Di Masso, A., and Vidal, T. (2015). Place attachment, place identity, sense of community and civic participation in displaced persons from the city of Chaitén. Magallania, 43 (3), 51-63

Bustos Aguayo, José Marcos, Juarez Nàjera, Margarita, Sandoval Vázquez, Francisco Rubén, & García Lirios, Cruz. (2022). Social Representations of Water Resources and Services in the COVID-19 Era. Revista de Derecho, (57), 155-165. Epub September 30, 2022.

Carreón Guillén, J., Amemiya Ramírez, M., Bustos Aguayo, J. M., Júarez Nájera, M., Limón Domínguez, G. A., Pérez Ortega, M. I., & García Lirios, C. (2017). Gobernanza del Desarrollo Local: Hacia un dispositivo del Trabajo Social para la sustentabilidad hídrica. Realidades Revista De La Facultad De Trabajo Social Y Desarrollo Humano, 6 (2), 39–51. Recuperado a partir de

Carreón, J., Hernández, J., García, C., Bustos, JM, Morales, ML, and Aguilar, JA (2014). The psychology of water sustainability: Public policies and consumption models. Bet, 63, 1-29

Carreón-Guillén, J., Bustos-Aguayo, J. M., Sandoval-Vázquez, F. R., Juárez-Nájera,. M.., & García-Lirios, C. (2022). Gobernanza en la era COVID -19: Expectativas sobre los servicios de agua. FIGEMPA: Investigación Y Desarrollo, 14 (2), 68–80.

Cortes, H. G. & Pena, J. I. (2015). From sustainability to sustainability, sustainable development model for its implementation in policies and projects. School of Business and Administration Magazine, 78, 40-54

Coulomb, R. (2008). Sustainability of the urban and historical centrality. A reflection from the historic center of Mexico City. Quivera, 10 (2), 29-49

Cruz García Lirios. (2020) Specification a Model for Study of Water Sustainability. J Clinical Case Reports and Clinical Study, 1 (1); DOI: http;//

Cruz García-Lirios, J. M. B. A. (2022). Water Framing Network in Central Mexico during the COVID-19 era. International Journal of Medical Sciences and Academic Research, 3 (05), 17-46. Retrieved from

Galicia, LA, Balderrama, JA and Navarro, RE (2017). Content validity by expert judgment: proposal of a virtual tool. Opening, 9 (2), 42-53

García Lirios, C., Carreón Guillén, J., Hernández Valdés, J., Bustos Aguayo, J. M., & Aguilar Fuentes, J. A. (2016). Especificación de un modelo de hipermetropía sociopolítica. Luna Azul, (42), 270 - 292.

García Lirios, C., Bustos Aguayo, J. M., & Sandoval Vázquez, F. R. (2023). La agenda y encuadre de los problemas hídricos en la Ciudad de México en la prensa de 2019 a 2022. Anuario Del Conflicto Social, (13), e–40712.

García Lirios, C., Francisco Rubén Sandoval Vázquez, Margarita Juárez Nájera, José Marcos Bustos Aguayo, Javier Carreon Guillen, Maria Luisa Quintero Soto, Rosa Maria Rincon Ornelas, & Sonia Sujell Velez Baez. (2021). Confirmatory Model of Attitudes in the COVID-19 Era. Pak-Euro Journal of Medical and Life Sciences, 4 (4), 275–282.

García Lirios, Cruz, Carreón Guillén, Javier, & Quintero Soto, María Luisa. (2015). Dimensiones de gobernanza para la sustentabilidad hídrica. Revista pueblos y fronteras digital, 10 (20), 195-203.

García Lirios, Cruz, Carreón Guillén, Javier, Hernández Valdés, Jorge, Mejía Rubio, Silvia, García Estrada, Erle, & Rosas Ferrusca, José Francisco. (2015). Hacia una agenda hídrica para la gobernanza local sustentable. Revista Internacional de Investigación en Ciencias Sociales, 11 (1), 130-154.

Garcia, C. (2018). Specified model for the study of the effects of climate change on public health. William of Ockham Scientific Review, 16 (2), 1-10

Garcia, R. and Marquez, H. (2013). Mexico: Violence and insecurity. Towards a strategy of development and human security. Special Issue, 1—30

Guevara, E. (2012). Management strategies for environmental sustainability. Industrial Engineering, News and New Trends, 3 (8), 83-92

Henríquez, C., Guzmán, J., & Salcedo, D. (2016). Opinion mining based on the Spanish adaptation of ANEW on opinions about hotels. Natural Language Processing, 56, 25-32

Javier C Guillén, Francisco E Morales, C Y Q Campas, Gilberto B Ruíz, R M R Ornelas, Cruz G Lirios. (2022). Governance of the public Administration of water Resources and Services in the COVID-19 era. Brain and Neurological Disorders. 5 (2); DOI:10.31579/2642-9730/023

Lirios CG, Aguayo JMB, Nájera MJ, et al. Exploratory factor structural of environmental perception. Sociol Int J. 2020; 4 (6): 161-166. DOI: 10.15406/sij.2020.04.00241

Lirios, C. G. (2005). Un Modelo para Explicar el Uso del Agua en la Zona Metropolitana del Valle de México. Revista Internacional De Psicología, 6 (02), 1–108.

Martínez Muñoz, E., Carreón Guillén, J., Sánchez Sánchez, A., Espinoza Morales, F., Anguiano Salazar, F., Bucio Pacheco, C., García Lirios, C., & Quintero Soto, M. L. (2019). Hybrid determinant model of the coffee entrepreneurship. Interconectando Saberes, (8).

Medrano, L. A. and Munoz, R. (2017). Conceptual and practical approach to structural equation models. Digital Journal of Research in University Teaching, 11 (1), 219-239

Nieto, F. (2020). The legacy of the six-year term of corruption: the challenges of the national anti-corruption system. International Forum, 40 (2), 683-715

Quiroz Campas, C. Y., Carreón Guillén, J., Bustos-Aguayo, J. M., Sánchez Sánchez, A., Espinoza Morales, F., & García Lirios, C. (2022). Ecocentric Governance: Sustainability Between the Availability of Resources and Needs. Jurnal Bina Praja: Journal of Home Affairs Governance, 14 (1), 147-158.

Sandoval Vázquez, F. R., Bustos Aguayo, J. M., & García Lirios, C. (2018). Implicaciones sociopolíticas del servicio de agua potable en un territorio de la ciudad de México. Civilizar, 18 (34), 75–84.

Sandoval, FR, Bustos, JM, Juarez, M. & Garcia, C. (2021). Specification of a model for the study of the sustainability of social work. Amazonia, 8 (1), 343-353.

Sandoval, I. E. (2016). Structural corruption approach: power, impunity and citizen voice. Mexican Journal of Sociology, 78 (1), 119-152

Sandoval-Vázquez, F. R., Bustos Aguayo, J. M., & García-Lirios, C. (2021). Desarrollo Local en la Era Post Covid-19. Ciencia Huasteca Boletín Científico De La Escuela Superior De Huejutla, 9 (18), 17-22.

Tinto, J. A. (2009). Meta-analysis as an instrument for searching and selecting information. An experience in the bibliographical selection process for the development of a doctoral thesis. Management Vision, special issue, 203-229

Tonello, G. and Valladares, N. (2015). Environmental awareness and sustainable conduct related to the use of energy for lighting. Management and Environment, 18 (1), 45-59

Uribe, ID, Gallo, LE, and Fernandez, A. (2017). Traces of a hedonistic education. Movements, 23 (1), 339-349




How to Cite

García Lirios, Cruz, Juan Mansilla Sepúlveda, José Marcos Bustos Aguayo, Francisco Rubén Sandoval Vázquez, and Cruz García-Lirios. 2023. “Network of Water Problems in the Press of Mexico City During the COVID-19 Era”. Metallurgical and Materials Engineering 29 (4).